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Front Crawl

  • Arm Stroke Recovery
    • Controlled and relaxed
    • Elbow lead out of water, as if taking hand out of pocket, while finishing pull
    • High elbow position maintained throughout stroke and recovery
    • Shorter radius of rotation about the shoulder allows quick recovery
    • Shorter radius of rotation about the shoulder reduces lateral rotation about the longitudinal axis
    • Palm facing backward throughout recovery, until "reach"
    • Reach with recovery hand completed as other hand is mid-pull
  • Arm Stroke Pull
    • Elbow-up, medial rotation
    • Backward "s" pull, maximizing movement perpendicular to the line of direction
    • "Catch" with hand (blade) at 45 degree angle to water surface, pressing away from the body
    • Insweep to position with 90 degree angle between upper and lower arm (most propulsive phase of pull)
  • Kick
    • Stabilization
    • Streamlining (reduces profile drag)
    • Maintenance of lateral alignment as lateral thrust of kick cancels effect of arm recovery
    • 6 beat sprint kick
    • maximum spread between legs 10-16"
    • straight leg recovery
    • knees bend to initiate propulsion as leg moves from flexion into extension
    • toes pointed and extended
    • 2 beat distance kick, slow and narrow
  • Head and Body Position
    • Water cuts forehead just above eyebrows
    • Creation of bow wave
    • Breath taken in concavity of bow wave
      Rotation of head (not lift) for breath

Back Crawl

  • Arm Stroke Recovery
    • Thumb lead in recovery
    • Straight, but not rigid arm
    • Vertical movement
    • Hand entry with little finger first
  • Arm Stroke Pull

    • Entry slightly outside shoulder width
    • Catch 6-12" below the surface of the water
    • "S" pattern, sculling motion
    • When hand is opposite shoulder, angle between upper and lower arm equals 90 degrees
    • After maximum elbow bend, swimmer pushes to end of reach
    • Roll around longitudinal axis to allow "deep" pull
  • Kick
    • Stabilization
    • Streamlining
    • Inverted front crawl kick
    • Downbeat as recovery, upbeat with flexed leg --thigh-- lead for propulsion
    • Kicking from hips
  • Head and Body Position
    • Chin tucked, ears in water

Breast Stroke

  • Arm Stroke Pull
    • 2 major sculling motions (outsweep and insweep)
    • catch 6-8" below the surface of the water
    • elbow-up, medial rotation
  • Arm Stroke Recovery
    • palm up or down with smooth transition from insweep
    • complete extension and reach
    • underwater below the surface of the water
  • Whip Kick
    • propeller-like, spiraling effect
    • angle formed by plane of body and upper leg 110-120 degrees
    • heels recover to buttocks, knees at shoulder width, ankles flexed
    • kick phase originates with inward rotation of upper legs, outward rotation or lower leg/ankle
    • throughout the kicking motion, feet outside knees
    • extension to finish, with lift of back of thigh to maintain streamline and allow for deep catch
  • Head/Breath
    • Head steady, no flexion for breath
    • Breath as pull begins

Butterfly

  • Arm Stroke Pull
    • Double "S", simultaneous pull
    • Outsweep-insweep-outsweep sculling pattern
    • Catch identical to that of freestyle catch
    • Symmetrical action
  • Arm Stroke Recovery
    • Low, flat parabola
    • Palms face water
  • Kick
    • Whole body movement, initiated at the shoulders
    • First kick - largest - to elevate hips and streamline the body, timed immediately after arms enter the water
    • Second kick during last part of the arm pull
    • Propulsion with knee bend lead downward into full extension (almost hyperextension)
    • Recovery with straight leg, lead up with back of thighs
  • Head/Breath
    • Mouth breaks surface to start inhalation when arms are underneath shoulders
    • Head presses back into water with arms finishing recovery.

page last updated 1/2/2013 4:34 PM