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Rope Jumping

Jump rope statuePractical Suggestions for Teaching K-3 Rope Jumping to Learners with Disabilities

Specific Games or Skills:

  • Jumping and landing

  • Balance

  • Chinese Jump Rope

  • Rope Turning

  • Long Jump Rope

  • Short Rope


General Modifications for Students with Disabilities

Intellectual delays (mental retardation)

  • Establish routine

  • Keep directions short & clear

  • Gradually increase speed of activity

  • Use demonstrations

  • Break down task step by step

  • Move student through task manually

  • Allow students to work at own pace

  • Provide feedback

  • Use peer tutor

  • Over-teach the cognitive information

  • Emphasize fitness activities

Learning Disabilities

  • Keep directions short and clear

  • Gradually increase speed of activity

  • Use demonstrations

  • Break down step by step

  • Provide choice of task (i.e.: jump back and forth over your short rope while it lays on the ground, or you hold it in your hands, or you swing it back and forth, or you throw it over your body)

  • Allow student to work at own pace

  • Provide positive feedback

  • Use visual cues

  • Work on body/space problems with action songs, games, mirrors, and tactile activities

  • Work on balance and upper/lower body coordination for motor proficiency

  • Work on obstacle courses for spatial orientation

  • Use brightly colored objects for contrast

  • Give opportunity for rhythmical problems

Conduct, behavior and emotional disorders

  • Keep directions short & clear

  • Gradually increase speed of activity

  • Use demonstrations

  • Break down step by step

  • Provide choices of task (i.e., jump back and forth over your short rope while it lays on the ground, or you hold it in your hands, or you swing it back and forth, or you throw it over your body)

  • Allow student to work at own pace

  • Use behavior contracts as needed

  • Remove distracting objects

  • Impose limits on use of equipment and facilities

  • Use games of social interaction

  • Expect aggressiveness and monitor it closely

  • Use activities that provide immediate and positive feedback

Visual impairment and blindness

  • Provide good lighting for use of residual vision

  • Have equipment/objects in a regular place

  • Keep area clear

  • Provide a bright colored or varied texture boundary for work area

  • Use bright colored equipment

  • Verbalize instruction and feedback

  • Move student through task manually

  • Use a peer tutor

  • Use other sensory modalities for providing information

  • Use games for social development

  • Use a beeper, constant sound source, etc.

  • Place students where they can best hear instructions

  • Use contrasts between figure and background

  • Increase or decrease the grade to indicate play boundaries

  • Begin new game in slower motion

Hearing impairment and deafness

  • Make sure the student can see your lips when you talk

  • If outside, keep students back to the sun during instructions

  • Know student's method of communication

  • Learn some sign language

  • Use demonstrations

  • Use a peer tutor

  • Stand still when instructing

  • Provide the student with strategies for game or skill before class when possible

  • Use visual demonstrations

  • Coordinate you communication method with the rest of the IEP team

  • Use captioned videotapes

Orthopedic Disabilities

  • Amputation

    • Develop strength and flexibility of the unaffected limb

    • Introduce activities that will improve balance and enhance ambulation

    • Develop and maintain cardiovascular endurance

    • Provide activities in which the individual can succeed or perform equal to or better than other pupils

  • Arthritis

    • Physical exercise is critical to reduce pain and increase function

    • Encourage gradual or static stretching

    • Isometric muscle contraction

    • Reduce weight-bearing aerobic exercise daily

    • Neurological Disabilities

  • Cerebral Palsy

    • Work on muscle stretching

    • Develop range of motion

    • Develop postural alignment

    • Use ramp climbing

    • Work on gait training

  • Spina Bifida

    • Develop activities that utilize the head, trunk, shoulders, arms and hands

    • Develop activities that could encourage pushing, pulling, and lifting

    • Avoid activities that could displace a shunt or put pressure on the sensitive areas of the spine

    • Teach functional movement skills

    • Develop stretching exercises to improve flexibility and to achieve full range of motion

Neurological disabilities (cerebral palsy, spina bifida)

  • Be aware of possible hip dislocation during activities

  • Use oversized equipment to inhibit the hand grasp reflex

  • Allow student to work at own pace

Autism

  • Structure class with regular routine

  • Use verbal cues often

  • Use a story board to communicate schedule of activities

  • Move student through task manually

  • Provide vigorous aerobic activity to reduce off task behavior

  • Reduce environmental stimulus

  • Use a consistent behavior modification program

  • Use an established routine with repetitive transition strategies

  • Use a predictable routine

  • Be consistent in use of terms, equipment, and class organization


Specific Modifications

Intellectual delays (mental retardation)

  • Using a line drawn on the floor have student jump over the line with feet together (forward/backward and side to side) before moving to a still rope

  • Have students jump to a rhythm using jump rope rhyme, clap or music

  • Mark spot to stand/jump

  • Identify rope handles, how to hold (water coming out of the water fountain-rope coming out of handle)

  • Cues for tossing rope over head: rainbow, smile, toe catch-practice several times (may want to have the students create the shape on the floor so that they can visualize a rainbow and a smile)

  • Cues for adding the jump: rainbow, smile, drag rope, jump over

  • Lots of repetition, and praise

  • Contests- "how many rainbows, or smiles, or jumps can you get when I say go"

Learning Disabilities

  • Using a line drawn on the floor have student jump over the line with feet together (forward/backward and side to side) before moving to a still rope

  • Have students jump to a rhythm using jump rope rhyme, clap or music

  • Mark spot to stand/jump

  • Identify rope handles, how to hold (water coming out of the water fountain-rope coming out of handle)

  • Cues for tossing rope over head: rainbow, smile, toe catch-practice several times (may want to have the students create the shape on the floor so that they can visualize a rainbow and a smile)

  • Cues for adding the jump: rainbow, smile, drag rope, jump over

  • Lots of repetition, and praise

  • Contests- "how many rainbows, or smiles, or jumps can you get when I say go"

  • Use brightly colored ropes

  • Add basic 4x4-count music to jump from side to side over rope

  • Build a jump rope obstacle course where the ropes are laid in different jumping patterns (horizontal, vertical, high, low, etc.)

Conduct, behavior and emotional disorders

  • Using a line drawn on the floor have student jump over the line with feet together (forward/backward and side to side) before moving to a still rope

  • Have students jump to a rhythm using jump rope rhyme, clap or music

  • Have equipment out of reach when not in use

  • Make sure activity area is clear of distracting objects

  • Go over safety expectations with rope (this is a rope used for jumping only, be specific: not used as a whip, helicopter, and tie, etc.)

  • Freeze signal: whistle, music, or just verbal "freeze"(have students form a certain shape on the floor with their rope and sit with their hands to themselves in the center of the rope shape)

  • Identify rope handles, how to hold (water coming out of the water fountain-rope coming out of handle)

  • Cues for tossing rope over head: rainbow, smile, toe catch-practice several times (may want to have the students create the shape on the floor so that they can visualize a rainbow and a smile)

  • Cues for adding the jump: rainbow, smile, drag rope, jump over

  • Task sheet for each cue accomplished (stamp or sticker validating their success)

  • Pick a partner and develop a jumping routine (ropes laying on the ground, or actual jumps depending on level)

Visual impairment and blindness

  • Use a beaded rope so that the child can hear the rope touch the ground

  • Feel the rope, describe shape

  • Lay the rope on the ground in front of the child and have them feel it on the ground in front of them

  • Hold their hands and practice just jumping into the air (you may have to actually lift them)

  • Try jumping over the rope, still holding their hands-gradually take one hand away then release both hands and see if they can jump over the rope themselves (remember to tell them exactly what your going to do before you progress)

  • Identify rope handles, how to hold (water coming out of the water fountain-rope coming out of handle)

  • Cues for tossing rope over head: rainbow, smile, toe catch-practice several times (may want to have the students create the shape on the floor so that they can feel the rainbow and a smile)

  • Cues for adding the jump: rainbow, smile, drag rope until they feel the rope touch their toes then jump over (shoes may be taken off for the tactile experience)

  • Partner up and have the student listen and count the number of jumps their partner can jump within a certain time period- take turns

Hearing impairment and deafness

  • Use a beaded rope so the student can feel the rhythm of the rope hit the ground

  • Remember to face the student during demonstrations

  • Demonstrate how to lay the rope down on floor- practice jumping from side to side over the rope

  • Identify rope handles, demonstrate how to hold (water coming out of the water fountain-rope coming out of handle)

  • Demonstrate cues for tossing rope over head: rainbow, smile, toe catch-practice several times (may want to have the students create the shape on the floor so that they can visualize a rainbow and a smile)

  • Demonstrate cues for adding the jump: rainbow, smile, drag rope, jump over

Orthopedic Disabilities

  • Amputation

    • Arm- Velcro a strap around arm and slide the rope handle between arm and Velcro

    • Both arms- use long rope with two turners

    • One leg- make sure since of balance is secure- possibly provide a mat on either side of the rope

    • Wheelchair: same cues except have the students roll over their rope (rainbow, smile, roll over)-make sure all extra equipment is removed from the wheelchair that the rope may catch on

    • Lay rope down on floor practice jumping (or rolling) from side to side over the rope

    • Identify rope handles, how to hold (water coming out of the water fountain-rope coming out of handle)

    • Cues for tossing rope over head: rainbow, smile, toe catch (or wheel catch)-practice several times (may want to have the students create the shape on the floor so that they can visualize a rainbow and a smile)

    • Cues for adding the jump: rainbow, smile, drag rope, jump over (roll over)

  • Arthritis

    • Jumping activities are not recommended

    • Fold ropes in half and hold rope on the ends and do various stretches (over head, side to side, step through etc.)

    • Manipulate the jump rope on the ground making shapes, numbers or letters

Neurological Disabilities

  • Fold ropes in half and hold rope on the ends and do various stretches (over head, side to side, step through etc.)

  • Manipulate the jump rope on the ground making shapes, numbers or letters

  • Lay rope down on floor practice jumping from side to side over the rope

  • Identify rope handles, how to hold (water coming out of the water fountain-rope coming out of handle)

  • Children having difficulty holding rope because of grip (Velcro)

  • Cues for tossing rope over head: rainbow, smile, toe catch (wheel catch)-practice several times (may want to have the students create the shape on the floor so that they can visualize a rainbow and a smile)

  • Cues for adding the jump: rainbow, smile, drag rope, jump over (roll over)

Autism

  • Secure area with four walls (runners)

  • Make sure activity area is clear of distracting objects

  • Go over safety expectations with rope (this is a rope used for jumping only, be specific: not used as a whip, helicopter, and tie, etc.)

  • Freeze signal: touch his her chin to redirect eyes on teacher-or what ever redirection technique is used in the classroom (have students form a certain shape on the floor with their rope and sit with their hands to themselves in the center of the rope shape)

  • Lay rope down on floor practice jumping from side to side over the rope

  • Identify rope handles, how to hold (water coming out of the water fountain-rope coming out of handle)

  • Cues for tossing rope over head: rainbow, smile, toe catch-practice several times (may want to have the students create the shape on the floor so that they can visualize a rainbow and a smile)

  • Cues for adding the jump: rainbow, smile, drag rope, jump over

  • Task sheet for each cue accomplished (stamp, sticker or treat validating their success)


Safety Suggestions

To keep all children safe consistent classroom management techniques must be enforced. Go over specific expectation to be used when playing with a jump rope. Identify the problems the individual will have in participating in jumping rope. Depending on the severity of the disability adult one on one supervision may be necessary. Mats, removal of extra equipment on the wheelchairs (handles, back wheel balances etc.)

If it is ever putting the child or other children in danger do not jump rope. A rope manipulation on the floor –shapes, letters, numbers, or riddles can be a great motivator.

Intellectual delays (mental retardation)

  • Stress importance of rope safety = never around your neck and in your own personal space

  • Have student repeat safety directions

Learning Disabilities

  • Have student repeat safety directions

Conduct, behavior and emotional disorders

  • Close supervision, perhaps an assistant, is required to avoid possible harm to self or others

  • Have student repeat safety directions

Visual impairment and blindness

  • Clear area of an obstacles

  • Provided sighted peer tutor to monitor proximity of other students

Hearing impairment and deafness

  • Remove hearing aid while jumping

  • Balance may be reduced

Orthopedic disabilities (JRA, amputations)

  • Prosthesis may be essential in maintaining balance and timing

  • Prosthesis may need to be padded for protections

Neurological disabilities (cerebral palsy, spina bifida)

  • Allow student to work at own pace and end activity before fatigue occurs

  • Provide a larger activity space in preparation for possible problems with balance and involuntary muscle spasms

  • Vigorous stimulation of tendon reflexes should be avoided

Autism

  • Provide contained area for activity so student may not run away

  • Close supervision, perhaps an assistant, is required to avoid possible harm to self or others


This content was created by Madeline Geary and Ronda Pippen

Administration and Service Delivery in APE

Texas Woman's University

Fall, 1999


References

Auxter, D., Pyfer, J., Huettig, C., (1997) Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation (8th ed.). Chicago, IL: McGraw-Hill.

Huettig, C., Pyfer, J., Auxter, D., (1993) Gross Motor Activities for Young Children with Special Needs (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Project Inspire [On-line]

Manross, M., Graham, G., Pennington, T., & Elliott, E., [editors] (1996, Aug.26). PECentral [On-line]. Blacksburg, VA: Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://pe.central.vt.edu/.

page last updated 10/9/2014 6:14 PM